At the start of organ development during embryogenesis most animals consist of a simple polarised epithelial sheet of cells that transforms into complex 3D shapes over time. Correct organ shape is critical for proper organ function. But what determines organ shape? It is the shapes and arrangement of cells within an organ that ultimately determines its shape. And cell shape itself is determined by the cytoskeleton, in particular by the actomyosin cortex and microtubule filaments. Many of the important organ systems in mammals and in invertebrate model systems retain their epithelial nature, and are often tubular in structure. This is true for the intestinal tract, kidney, liver, lung, and vasculature.
The cell biology of dynamic epithelia during organ formation
Maternal bereavement in the antenathal period and Neural tube defect in the offspring. N2 - Title: Maternal bereavement after death of a close relative and neural tube defect in the offspringBackground: Neural tube defects are the second most common and often lethal congenital anomaly in the world leaving surviving children with life-long severe disabilities. A low intake of folic acid is the best-known cause of the disease. Objective: To investigate if severe emotional stress exposure related to maternal bereavement due to loss of a close relative in the antenatal period is associated with neural tube defect in the offspring. In the time window of one year before pregnancy or during the first trimester of pregnancy 34, mothers were exposed to bereavement. Results: A total of 5, cases of neural tube defects were identified: with spina bifida and 2, with hydrocephalous. For all neural tube defects combined no significant association was seen OR 1. Moreover, when bereavement was due to death of an older child an increased risk was seen OR 1. We did not adjust for folic acid, but a sub-analysis of approximately 85, mothers showed no difference in intake during pregnancy in exposed and unexposed mothers.
They think highly enough of themselves, don't add to their ego. Harmony will prevail if the husband appreciates the value of church service and attendance. I hate to say it, but if you are serious, go explore her world. Being a doctor's wife is difficult, demanding, and lonely. Mormonism isn't a free ticket to heaven. I think your response is Bang on. My husband did his residency in family medicine before work hour restrictions and pulled hour work weeks just like the surgeons. Also, as Joanna points out, men and women already inhabit a separate culture. Then you complain when the polish of being married to a doctor wears off and you grow callused to the money and big house.